As more and more research comes out on blended learning, clearly student interaction is a topic that cannot be ignored. Without sufficient quality and quantity of student interaction, any form of online learning, especially blended learning models, have little chance of success.
Dziuban, Hartman, and Mehaffy (2014) observe that:
Blended learning, in all its various representations, has as its fundamental premise a simple idea: link the best technological solutions for teaching and learning with the best human resources….encourag[ing] the development of highly interactive and collaborative activities that can be accomplished only by a faculty member in a mediated setting. (p.322)
In creating a blended course model, here are recommendations I have to maximize student interaction.
In the online component of the course, have these activities planned:
a. Syllabus review with a discussion board activity where students weigh in on the syllabus and their own
b. Student profile creation which facilitates student-to-student interaction
c. Video viewings
d. Quiz or application of learning (This could be the evaluation of a learning object needed to complete the final project of the course)
e. Reflection writing
These activities in the online component of a course demonstrate the following: “In the best of circumstances technology allows professors to offload responsibilities that can be taken up by technology.” Dzuiban, Hartman, and Mehaffy( 2014).
In the face-to-face component of the class:
a. Have a synchronous weekly chat that centers around the main topic of the week and allows time for questions
b. Have a final face-to-face meeting where students (or groups) deliver their final presentations for the course with an opportunity for peer review
The face-to-face components of a blended course tap into interaction as a human need which is closely tied to intrinsic motivation. Synchronous activities and meetings can provide a sense of community and the necessary connections that hold an online (or blended course together). In this community setting, it is important to consider who the students will be expressing themselves to in their presentations. Students should be prepared to make their case, express their opinions and answer questions from peers and instructors. Not only are these skills valuable in an academic setting where students are working toward a degree, but they can also be considered part of what it means to be career-ready.
Whether activities are online or face-to-face, it is very important to provide clear instructions, expectations and exemplars of good work. Creating rubrics for each different kind of activity gives students a roadmap toward defining their learning and achievement goals.
Dzuiban, C.D., Harman, J.L., and Mehaffy, G.L. (2014). Blending it all together, In A. Picciano, C. Dzuiban, and C. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research Perspectives volume 2. NY: Routledge.
In taking ELI’s BlendKit15 course on blended learning, I am exposed many new readings and ideas about what blended learning is and what it is not. As online learning research accumulates, clearly blended learning models are coming out ahead as the most effective form of online learning with exceptional learning results for students. As cited in the U.S. Department of Education’s (2010) “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies”, “Students in online conditions performed modestly better, on average, than those learning the same material through traditional face-to-face instruciton (p.xiv) and noteably, “Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction that did purely onlien instruction.” (p.xv).
Why is this? There are several reasons to consider. By combining online components that the student can engage with and explore on their own terms with a face-to-face component that allows for building knowledge through connection, collaboration and discourse, you have a well rounded experience that benefits the learner and provides a refreshing role for the instructor as a guide or facilitator.
This model is also highly beneficial to several learning styles and allows both the introverted and extroverted student areanas in which they can shine.
I am a huge fan of George Siemans and his learning theory of connectivism. Blended learning moves us …”towards a networked model requires that we place less emphasis on our tasks of presenting information, and more emphasis on building the learner’s ability to navigate the information.” It is in this navigation, that the student sharpens critical thinking skills and develops into an independent life-long learner. I especially like the way that George Siemans describes the links and connections formed by the learners themselves as, “…the creation of the knowledge ecology.”
In order to achieve the best balance of both worlds and create an enriched learning experience for the student, these 5 ideas are useful to remember:
- Context is always at the core of the planning and design process. Who are the learners? What do they need to learn? What kinds of learning experiences will optimize that effort?
- Keep learning and not technology at the center of the design process. Use technology to leverage learning.
- Be aware that creating an online or blended learning class will take more time and thought to prepare it properly.
- Be prepared to adapt any learning model you use as you get into the design process
- “Creating a blended learning strategy is an evolutionary process.” (Singh and Reed, 2001).
I’m looking forward to exploring this topic and online course design style more in depth. What appeals to me is the interplay between online and f2f components and how to optimize that volly to find just the right mix to create a vibrant learning community that ignites with the love of self-directed learning.
Siemens, G. (2002, September 30, 2012). Instructional Design in Elearning. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Article/InstructionalDesign.htm
Singh, H. & reed, C. (2001). A white paper: achieving success with blended learning. Centra Software.
U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf
If you’ve been following the stream of articles on digital education, no doubt you’ve run into the frenzy around MOOCs. MOOCS represent a new form of online education deliverable to students worldwide for a low- to no-cost and can provide, in some cases, college credit. Students can access educational content delivered by some of the most prestigious universities in the world on their time and from multiple devices.
So far, MOOCs have already opened accessibility to higher education for millions of students; according to Coursera over half of these students are over age 26. 
As with other disruptions, controversy swells after initial launches, and MOOCs are certainly no exception. Recently, a group of philosophy professors at San Jose State Universitywrote an open letter to Michael Sandel, a government professor at Harvard University, for his offering of a MOOC through the provider edX that had its beginnings at Harvard.
The issue? Concerns the collaboration between schools via MOOCs could represent the beginning of a trend to “replace professors, dismantle departments, and provide a diminished education for students in public universities.”
In early May, several dozen professors in Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences signed a letter to their dean asking for formal oversight of the MOOC offerings through edX, a MOOC provider co-founded by the University.
The Harvard professors alluded to “many critical questions,” as yet unanswered, about “the impact online courses will have on the higher-education system as a whole.” Some outsiders comment that Harvard (and other large tier-one universities) may become the Wal-Mart of education, impacting branding, and moving to a corporate model, which could exclude the original values and mission statement of university education. Critics argue that professors who object to the emergence of MOOCs may be more concerned their scholarly works may come under much more scrutiny when their classes open to the world.
Financially and politically, the MOOC movement recasts itself almost daily as the big players jostle for position to become a top-tier provider of online courses that can be offered either as the main course or more of an appetizer in a flipped classroom setting.
Some higher education forecasters believe this is the future of public education. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which is supporting the Massachusetts Bay Community College experiment where MOOC delivery is happening in addition to face-to-face classroom instruction, has devoted millions to seeing if MOOCs produced by elite universities could help boost student success at financially-strapped state colleges.
The MOOC style of delivery is no doubt highly popular among students and lifelong learners. More than 900,000 people are now registered users of edX, and President Anant Agarwal said it plans to generate revenue — through selling validated certificates to those who complete courses and charging licensing fees to colleges that teach courses based on its videos — are on track.
Coursera, another highly popular MOOC provider, adapted its original vision to a new platform, offering credit-bearing courses for students enrolled in multiple campuses within a public university system beginning in May 2013.
The company’s partners in this are the State University of New York System, the Tennessee Board of Regents and the University of Tennessee System, the University of Colorado System, the University of Houston System, the University of Kentucky, the University of Nebraska System, the University of New Mexico System, the University System of Georgia and West Virginia University.
Critics claim the real impact of MOOCs may not be in educational pedagogy, but in the altering of the financial and political systems tied to higher education.
Faculty are concerned about job security, academic freedom and the general dismantling of a very entrenched traditional version of higher education. Other newly-arising and hotly contested issues include: whether a professor who creates content delivered on a MOOC platform is responsible for the full impact of disruption created at another university or community college; whether students are actually learning anything; and how credit administered for these courses would compare with credit delivered for face-to-face classroom instruction.
Chandrakant Panse of Massachusetts Bay Community College said, “The MIT certificate has a lot more value in the marketplace than three course credits at MassBay — absolutely.”
In the context of a student’s job search, says the professor, an edX certificate “is going to matter tremendously more than saying. ‘I have three credits at MassBay for doing a programming course.’”
Because of the paucity of secure and psychometrically valid learning outcome assessments, it is difficult to determine the value of MOOCs. Some see it as a new form of entertainment, with some students around the world competing to obtain the highest numbers of letters of completion. These so-called hardcore students have, in some cases, taken more than 30 courses and describe themselves as “Coursera addicts.” They argue this is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to learn from some of the most prestigious universities in the world … for free. And they worry this free admission to high-quality education may not last for long.
New research published by the Journal of Research and Practice in Assessment is among the first peer-reviewed studies based on MOOC data. The study discovered online learners performed better when they worked with the course material offline, either with a peer or with someone trained in the area of study. The course reviewed was “Circuits and Electronics” from MIT.
In this article, we must also visit the issue of cheating online, as it is easy to do so in a MOOC. “Understanding Cheating in Online Courses,” an eight-week course, explores the vocabulary, psychology and mechanics of what Bernard Bull, assistant vice-president of academics at Concordia University Wisconsin, calls “successful cheating” in online learning.
Not all academics are critical of MOOCs. In fact, some of them welcome the movement as a way to augment their already-established courses. Khosrow Ghadiri, a lecturer at San Jose State University, said the edX course works perfectly as an additional classroom resource.
“It’s a talking textbook that you can pick up any chapter of it, augment it the way you want it, add lecture to it, and use it to teach your students effectively,” he told The Chronicle of Higher Education. 
Last fall, Ghadiri began using recorded lectures by edX’s Agarwal in his introductory course in electrical engineering. Students passed at a much higher rate than usual — 91 percent compared with 59 percent and 55 percent in two other, more traditional sections of the same course.
“We need a talented faculty to engage with the students,” said Ghadiri. “The only thing that I see in this pilot experiment is that the faculty get more time to spend with the students one-on-one.”
Clearly, the emergence of a trend such as the MOOC is indicative of unmet educational needs worldwide. Societal changes are forcing time-tested traditions to yield to the demand for more relevant models. The disruption presently created by the MOOC movement can be a time for fresh debate and an emergence of completely new models that serve both instructor and student more effectively in the 21st century. As with many things in our societies, embracing change promotes growth, both personally and professionally.
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Article originally posted on The EvoLLLution at http://www.evolllution.com/community_programs/audio-serving-local-community-critical-small-institution-success/
 Allison Morris, “The Minds Behind The MOOCs,” Online Courses, June 4, 2013. Accessed at http://www.onlinecollegecourses.com/minds-behind-moocs
 “San Jose State Department of Philosophy – Open Letter to Professor Michael Sandel From the Philosophy Departemnt at San Jose State U,” RapGenius, April 29, 2013. Accessed at http://news.rapgenius.com/San-jose-state-department-of-philosophy-open-letter-to-professor-michael-sandel-from-the-philosophy-department-at-san-jose-state-u-lyrics#note-1833866
 “Letter from 58 Professors to Smith Addressing edX,” The Harvard Crimson, May 23, 2013. Accessed at http://www.thecrimson.com/flash-graphic/2013/5/23/edx-faculty-letter-smith/
 Steve Kolowich, “Outsourced Lectures Raise Concerns About Academic Freedom,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2013. Accessed athttp://chronicle.com/article/Outsourced-Lectures-Raise/139471/
At the Center for Applied Second Language Studies at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon a grand experiment is taking place. Due to the impact of recent budget cuts in education both at the K-12 level and in higher education, foreign language courses are being dropped and students are scrambling to find new and different ways to access these necessary courses. The courses are not only necessary for college admission, but to adequately function in the globalized job market of the future. Some high school students in our state are going to community colleges for classes, while others are taking online courses developed by educational corporations.
We have assembled a team of Chinese specialists in curriculum and pedagogical design and along with myself working in instructional design and technology, we are preparing online modules in Mandarin for both high school students and the national Flagship program which supplies classes that deliver both content and high level Chinese language instruction to college students. Our goal is to create a completely new format that offers the best of language instruction and enriched technological media for high student engagement.
Being in a pioneering field is both exciting and daunting at times. One of the greatest challenges we have faced is exactly how to blend the philosophy of sound evidence based language instruction with best practices in Instructional Design. There is an art and science to both good language instruction and engaging instructional design and finding the exact points where these two disciplines intersect has been fascinating.
Communication is key. One would think that it would be easy to communicate the needs for an online module to a content development team. But without having taken an online course, the members of the content development team rely heavily on my expertise and understanding of how the course will unfold in an asynchronous online setting. By contrast, not speaking a word of Mandarin, I rely heavily on the team’s expertise in developing both content and curriculum that will meet national and international standards of language instruction.
Working with native speakers from China and Taiwan, I have discovered their learning styles and their great attention to detail. While it has been mentioned in the literature that Asian cultures by nature may not necessarily be innovative, I would disagree. What I have noticed is that their ability to revise, refine and innovate is keen on models that are already created. The areas where I see our team being stretched is in using new models of teaching, such as project based learning and folding in Web 2.0 tools, the quantity of which grows by the day.
It is immensely rewarding to work side by side with colleagues from China and Taiwan as we move forward with our online initiatives. The various perspectives, skill sets, talents and viewpoints help to create an enriched learning experience that we are eager to sample with student groups soon.
Image courtesy of:
Extracted: 3/30/12 at 11:34 AM (PST).
Assessing a Collaboration Project
For this discussion post, you are in the role of an online instructor who has assigned a website to be built by groups comprised of four students each in your course in Multimedia Web Design. This is a capstone project for the course and you have had the opportunity to observe each student’s level of cognitive attitude, technical ability and participation in the course through other collaborative projects, like the Discussion Board. You are entering the last two weeks of the course, and by now, peer to peer relationships have been established and your role now is to function as a learning guide.
Reflect on your role as a learning guide and how best to approach your students, now that they have become more independent. In your previous online courses, reflect upon an instructor who has handled this transitional role well and draw from it as you develop this week’s post.
Reflect on your role as a student and how it has been for you working in groups for academic projects in the past. What have you learned that you can take forward with this assignment?
For this week’s post:
Please describe how you would:
- Form the groups for the Captstone Project
- Communicate Best Practices for helping the group to manage the project
- Establish roles for the project
- Assess both individual and group performance
- Design rubrics for this assessment
Here is the rubric that your post will be evaluated by the following rubric. Click on this link, scroll to the very bottom of the page and locate the rubric for Discussion Posts.
Post by Wednesday: Please post your response to the class Discussion Board by Wednesday of this week.
Friday: Review the Discussion Board posts and enter in to any discussion to add and expand the discussion.
Sunday: Again, review all the responses to your initial post and follow up with any conversations that you have been participating in to date.
(Cartoon thought bubble reads: ” http://www.canyoudomyhomeworkforme.com”;)
With the explosion of online learning in both K-12 and higher education, there too, has been an explosion in plagiarism and cheating. While the motivation for cheating has not changed over the years, the realization that one has cheated, especially in the digital world, has, as it is much more visible in a cyber based classroom. Most students do not realize that by cutting and pasting text from a website into their research paper without citation represents plagiarism and cheating.
In an interesting survey of approximately 50,000 students from more than 60 universities students believe: ‘cut & paste’ plagiarism – using a sentence or two (or more) from different sources on the Internet and weaving this information together into a paper without appropriate citation – is not a serious issue. While 10 percent of students admitted to engaging in such behavior in 1999, almost 40 percent admit to doing so in the Assessment Project surveys [2002-5]. A majority of students (77%) believe such cheating is not a very serious issue (CAI research, 2005) as cited in Jocoy & DiBiase (2006). Why has cheating become ‘not a very serious issue’? It appears both the expectations and enforcements of facilitators/educators has fallen off.
According to Jocoy & DiBiase (2006), it is much harder to detect manually as well. With budget cuts, shorter teacher days, higher enrollments, it seems plausible that a lot of cheating is going unnoticed. Thankfully, plagiarism software is now available to online instructors that can check for plagiarism. Turnitin is a good case in point. Other methods include Google which allows instructors to track down copied phrases and online services such as EVE actually compares student papers to Web documents and/or to essay databases to find and report instances of matching text. In their study, Jocoy & DiBiase(2006) did notice a difference in detecting instances of cheating by using digital resources.
Our authors, Palloff & Pratt (2011), discuss the importance of creating an assessment that is highly individualized. For instance, rather than creating a multiple choice test, design the assessment so that the student has to write a personal reflection paper that demonstrates how they would apply the knowledge gained in the course to their everyday lives. There is an argument for preparing students for the work world in such a way that collaborative research, and fact finding becomes a norm. Right now in my son’s 7th grade class, the math teams occasionally take a group exam and each member of the team can contribute their knowledge to the exam.
As an instructor, there are several remedies than can be implemented to cut down on both plagiarism and cheating.
First of all, the instructor holds the expectation that students will not cheat and that there will be enforcements and consequences if students are caught. The announcement of assignments being processed by Turnitin should be enough of disincentive for a student to go down that road. More use of librarians can also be helpful, as many current students do not really understand the nature of plagiarism.
As an online instructor, examinations can be made of documents side-by-side, discussion posts can be compared to one another, unusual wording or lengthy wording that differs from the student’s ‘signature style’, and even a mix of fonts and type style in one paper are all ways that an instructor can possibly suspect cheating. If it is suspected, it is best that the instructor addresses the issue with the student offline and explains the situation and asks for an explanation.
The online instructor has the responsibility to set the tone of this issue early on in Week Zero in the course policies of what the expectations and consequences are for cheating.
The student who cheats only cheats him or herself on really knowing the material that will benefit their life somehow in the future. That is a real loss for that individual and needs to be prevented.
As I look to the future of online learning, I really like the idea of designing assessments that are as individualized as a student’s fingerprint. Design the assessment so that the student is forced to engage higher level thinking skills and demonstrate metacognition. Reflecting on one’s experiences in life or applying the content information to one’s life are excellent ways to measure learning and guarantee that the student has delivered original thinking and truly contributed something unique to the learning community of the course.
Cartoon courtesy of www. CartoonStock.com. Extracted from: Google Images. 04/07/11
Jocoy, C., & DiBiase, D. (2006). Plagiarism by adult learners online: A case study in detection and remediation. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 7(1), 1–15.
Palloff, R. & Pratt, K. (2011) Plagiarism and Cheating. Laureate Education Inc., Video Production.